Both Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) and Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) require downtime to charge their batteries. There are three charging levels outlined in the table below. Level 1 charging is the easiest and most cost-effective to implement with your fleet, but it also takes the longest time. Level 3 charging takes the least amount of time to charge, but it costs the most to implement. Consider your needs before choosing the type of charging station.
|Level||Voltage||Charge Type||Est. Charge Time|
|1||120 VAC||Common Residential grounded receptacle from electrical source to vehicle’s onboard charger.||8 to 16 hours|
|2||240 VAC||Dedicated 30-80 amp circuit from electrical source to vehicle’s onboard charger.||3 to 8 hours|
|3||High-voltage (VDC)||Direct Current from off-board charger; up to 400 amps.||15 to 30 minutes|
Light-duty PHEVs that are on the market today typically utilize Level 1 charging, which is a simple plug-in device/cord, can be used at home or anywhere that standard 120VAC receptacles are available. It should be noted that Level 2 chargers are available.
Both light-duty and heavy-duty BEVs more commonly use a Level 2 charging station. These stations may require charging station installation. These stations need a dedicated 240VAC source with a current rating of 40 amps. Level 2 charges also can be utilized with PHEVs.
To increase acceptability of electric drive fleet vehicles by reducing charging time, there are Level 3 chargers. These systems convert this high-power AC to DC voltage for direct plug-in charging of the onboard DC batteries. These systems can reduce charging time to a half hour or less. However, they are not commonly available and have higher capital costs when compared to Level 1 and 2 charging. Level 3 charging systems are valuable for the heavy-duty sector where onboard energy storage is much larger than light-duty applications.
To view a map of the charging stations in your area, visit: www.aedve.info/consumer-information/charging-stations/
For more information about setting up your own fleet charging stations, visit www.afdc.energy.gov/fuels/electricity_charging_home.html